历史视角下的挪威与欧盟:为什么挪威不是欧盟成员国

  • 日期:08-04
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挪威人口为513万,被认为是欧洲国家中的一个小国,但与此同时,它是世界上最发达的国家之一。根据2018年欧洲国家的GDP数据,挪威排名第13位,为44.3亿美元,而挪威的人均国内生产总值高达76,000美元,在欧洲排名第5。

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那么,作为一个福利,高收入和高税收的国家,为什么挪威不加入欧盟呢?这真的是因为“有金钱和任性”,所以拒绝与欧盟成员国“一团热身”吗?

第二次世界大战结束后,作为主要战场之一的欧洲遭到了破坏和毁灭。战争的严重后果促使欧洲国家重新思考如何在欧洲大陆实现和平发展。挪威对如何在战后欧洲发展这一主张有自己的考虑。

1.1为什么斯堪的纳维亚合作失败了?

一开始,从地缘政治的角度来看,挪威打算通过与邻国瑞典和丹麦的合作建立斯堪的纳维亚经济合作,以实现三国的共同发展。由于美国政府提出的马歇尔计划,这个想法可以实施。 1947年,为了在战后帮助重建西欧国家,美国政府实施了欧洲复兴计划(Marshall Plan)。挪威政府最初对马歇尔计划持否定态度,因为它担心与大国的联盟会对自己的利益造成损害。

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美国杜鲁门政府正在讨论对欧洲的援助

在这种背景下,三国建立的“北欧经济合作委员会”成立于1953年。但是,由于三国在矿产,林业和电力资源领域的竞争关系,各国企业都是不受政府控制,战后挪威的经济实力较低。因此,从最大化国家利益的角度来看,斯堪的纳维亚的合作以失败告终。

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斯堪的纳维亚经济合作

1.2与欧洲经济共同体对抗的欧洲自由贸易联盟

纳维亚经济合作陷入僵局,以法,德,意大利,荷兰?壤保ち闪⒌呐分蘧霉餐澹ㄅ分薰餐宓闹匾槌刹糠郑┤闯跫尚АA骷跄诓抗厮暗耐斯叵导蟮卮碳ち擞⒐舜蜓古分蘧霉餐澹⒐攀纸⑴分拮杂擅骋琢恕N嘶竦糜肱分拗罟惴旱暮献鳎餐斡氲脚分拮杂擅骋琢说奶概兄小?1960年年,挪威与英,瑞士,丹麦,奥地利,葡萄牙,瑞典签署协议,成立欧洲自由贸易联盟。

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图1957年《欧洲经济共同体条约》的签订及参与国成员

欧洲自由贸易联盟相较于纳维亚关税同盟,最成功之处在于它减轻了斯堪半岛三国的关税壁垒(1966年更是彻底免除了工业产品的关税)。挪威经济结构也因此产生了新的变化:在农业,渔业和手工业产业中,农,渔业占比下降,而机械和制造业产品的出口量成倍增长,挪威逐渐摆脱了“捕鱼小国”的落后地位

1.3英国的“跟屁虫”挪威两次入欧失败的根源

欧洲自由贸易联盟成立的次年,英国却一改对欧洲经济共同体的否定态度,于1961年8月提交“入欧”申请。英国的举动令挪威政府措手不及,但是此时的挪威已不能脱离与英国及诸联盟的合作关系。所以,尽管国内反对入欧的呼声一浪高过一浪,经过一年的协商,挪威工党政府最终还是在1962年4月提交了正式的入欧申请。

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XX图 欧洲经济共同体

然而,由于当时的欧洲共同体(欧盟)是由法国和德国主导的组织,法国“戴高乐主义”的政治主张是坚持独立自主,摆脱美、苏超级大国的控制,维护战后法国在欧洲及国际上的领导关系。而作为欧洲大陆上“血统高贵的”英国,虽然在战后国力日渐衰微,却始终将自己视为欧洲大陆的佼佼者,希望继续成为欧洲一体化的核心。此外,英国与美国的特殊关系也让法国对英国入欧心存忌惮。所以,英国的入欧申请被法国总统戴高乐否决。受到英国的影响,挪威第一次申请入欧之事当然也就不了了之了。

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图 夏尔安德烈约瑟夫马里戴高乐

1967年,挪威再次跟随英国的脚步,向欧共体提出入欧申请。此次申请得到了挪威国民的广泛支持,但是由于“戴高乐主义”仍未消退,所以挪威的第二次入欧申请也失败了。

1.4挪威两次入欧公投失败的根源 恐入欧会对本国农业、渔业产生消极影响

转机发生在1969年,戴高乐辞去总统一职,英国、丹麦、瑞典相继成功加入欧共体,挪威入欧有了希望。

然而,成为欧共体成员意味着挪威必须遵守欧共体的全部决议,而这会对挪威的经济命脉农业和渔业产生消极的影响。最终,双方各自做出让步:在农业问题上,为弥补入欧导致的挪威农民的重大经济损失,欧共体保证挪威农民能够维持现有生活水平;在渔业问题上,将挪威海岸线划分南北两部,分区执行十二英里捕捞限制。

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xxxx挪威经济严重依赖自然资源,其中农业,林业和渔业是传统的挪威工业。根据2007年的数据调整

尽管挪威政府和欧盟已经确定了进入欧盟的条件,但他们的国内部队并不同意。 1970年,“挪威反共人民运动”爆发。反对者指出,加入欧盟将严重损害挪威的经济发展和主权。该运动极大地影响了1972年公投的结果,挪威人民拒绝了进入欧洲的提议,结果为53.3%。

在20世纪90年代,冷战结束后,欧洲发生了新的变化,挪威在20年后再次开始在欧洲进行谈判。无一例外,公投仍然由反对者主导,52.5%的结果几乎与20年前相同。

从那时起,反对加入欧盟似乎已成为挪威法律。为什么会这样?这不得不提到挪威“对欧洲主义的怀疑”。

顾名思义,“疑似欧洲主义”指的是对欧洲一体化及其发展持怀疑态度。这不是挪威的原创性。可疑的欧洲主义是当今欧洲国家的共同问题。怀疑欧洲主义是挪威未能加入欧盟的根本原因。

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图令人怀疑的欧洲主义(欧洲怀疑主义)指的是对欧洲一体化的警惕和怀疑的趋势

首先,挪威是议会君主制。国家的权利由议会,内阁和法院共享。这三名成员由工党,社会主义左翼党,中央党,保守党,自由党和进步党等多党派成员组成。等待。在讨论挪威进入欧洲时,各方都有自己的立场,大多数政党都不同意。

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图挪威国王哈拉尔五世

In the 2009 parliamentary elections, the parties expressed their extreme disunity on whether to join the EU: the Labor Party, the Conservative Party, and the Progressive Party strongly demanded to join, and the suspected European parties such as the Socialist Left Party, the Central Party, and the Liberal Party oppose joining. However, the results of the social survey show that there is widespread disagreement among the internal parliamentarians of various parties. Take the Labor Party as an example, the left party of the Labor Party opposes joining the EU.

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There are more than 20 registered political parties in Norway. The main political parties include the Labour Party, the Conservative Party, the Christian People's Party, the Central Party, the Progressive Party, and the Socialist Left Party.

Secondly, Norway takes the form of a referendum on European issues, so the public's intention largely determines whether Norway can join the EU. 72% and 89% of the voters participated in the referendums of 1972 and 1994 respectively. The growth rate of the number of participants from the two referendums can be found in the Norwegian people's attention to European issues. From the proportion of opponents, the Norwegian people can be suspected. The European tendency is also obvious.

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The Norwegian people oppose joining the EU for three reasons: economy, national identity and national tradition. First, starting with the initial referendum in 1972, people (mainly farmers and fishermen) generally believed that after joining the European Community, their agricultural subsidies would shrink and fishery resources would be shared by other European countries. At the time of the second referendum in 1994, although the dependence of Norwegian export trade on the European market was not serious at this time, 72% of the people believed that joining the EU would worsen the domestic economic situation.

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xxSecondly, Norway is a country with a very strong "national self-determination". The people are extremely disgusted with the super-national characteristics of the EU's "warming up". Finally, the Norwegian state is highly democratic. Geographically, Norway is located on the edge of Europe and is known as the “Country of Europe”. Therefore, the Norwegian people are not only "not cold" but also very resistant to the elite culture promoted by the EU. Therefore, joining the EU is not attractive to the Norwegian people.

Now, the relationship between Norway and the EU can be described as "暧昧": as a non-EU member state, but able to participate in various European institutional arrangements, not a formal member, but actively adapt to and integrate into the EU, such a desire to refuse to welcome The relationship is called the "Norwegian model."

Regardless of the status quo of Norway and the EU, Norway is more willing to remain silent on European issues in order not to blame domestic political parties and people for doubting European power and to enjoy the dividends the EU has brought to the country. However, such a sleek approach has also brought a critical voice to Norway: the domestic pro-European faction accuses Norway of lacking influence on the decision-making of European-related issues; EU member states are not satisfied with the rights of member states in Norway, but enjoy market benefits. Behavior is quite dissatisfied.

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As a small country with a small population and territorial size, even if it can join the big country-led EU, it is difficult to have any substantial impact on EU decision-making. Moreover, in view of the EU's recent problems of democratic deficits, refugee problems, terrorism and internal crises, the EU's attraction to Norway has been drastically weakened. If Norway wants to continue to maintain its sovereign independence, the interests of agriculture and fisheries, maintain a high welfare society and economic prosperity. Then, continuing to continue the "Norwegian model" may be a smart move.

References

《欧盟概览》

《欧洲一体化进程:欧盟的决策与对外关系》

《挪威简史》

《审问欧洲》

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